1.For our climate zone the density of the electrolyte of the battery charged, measured at a temperature of + 25 ° C should be 1.28 g / cm3. The battery is unacceptable diluted when the density of the electrolyte it falls below 1.15, and poluzareden- to 1.25.
2.Elektrolit with increased density is also dangerous for the "health" of the battery.
3. The allowable minimum dilution is 1.7 volts per cell, or a total of 10.2 volts measured at the terminals of the battery dvanadesetvoltova. In other words - the permissible discharge can be 25% for the winter and 50% in summer.
4.Nivoto electrolyte must always be 10-15 mm above the plates. It should be checked at least every two weeks.
5.Vinagi first removed the cable lug from "minus".
6.Zarezhdashtiya current in the required range (14,2 ± 0,3 volts for twelve volt battery)
7. If the loading temperature of the battery cell exceeds 40 ° C, the rectifier must be disconnected from the network until the temperature drops to 25-30 ° C.
8.Akumulatorat is loaded when in a period of two hours the density of the electrolyte to remain the same, or when the voltage is held for several hours at the same level (in the new faces and twelve volt battery - about 16 volts). A sure sign of the end of the charging started violently release bubbles in the electrolyte (ie. Called. "Boiling" of the battery).
9.Pone once every 6 months should be performed m. Called. Training cycle.
The short-term stay 10.Dori battery dry, as it was once electrolyte is detrimental to his plates. Correctly it is fully charged and stored in a cool ventilated area. Fortnightly electrolyte level should be checked and, if necessary, make distilled water, and once a month to charge for at least 2-3 hours. It is also better every three months to conduct training cycles.
How to keep the battery:
1. Twice a year check the charge with a multimeter (8 lev) at 2000 rpm, voltage 13.8 to 14.4 volts. Accordingly elektrolira checking and topping up with water (distilled or deionized).
2. Save electricity when working on site. Then load is low (the most luxury cars).
3. Do not turn the starter over seven seconds and a maximum of 2-3 try it in 30 seconds. If no lights on so you have a problem to remove.
4. In winter BEFORE lighting make procedure warming. 3 times -> 4 seconds long / 4 seconds pause. You'll notice that the starter spins then more vigorously. If everything is in December
5. Alternator winter fails to load the battery. Well at least once before / during the winter to fully charge (if you do not dream garage and charger).
6. If you buy a new battery have to be charged with the charger BEFORE operation (nobody does it anymore). If you put it simply (because they provide dry charged) remains at 80% capacity until the end of his life (source YUASA). The ideal is to go 2-3 charge / discharge cycles before installation in the car. But it is expensive. And slowly. This one does not. And the dealer will explain that "no need" - you and he wants to sell more.
7. Do not allow the battery to stand diluted in the car in freezing temperatures. Water that forms in the cells freezes them care. Aging is guaranteed. Especially this applies to modern "unattended" and mostly "Calcium". Older are slightly more durable.
8. Always buy the biggest battery that can enter the nest. Slightly higher price will repay a much longer life. Alternator will charge - do not be scared of it. Well, do not overdo it though - if you do not enter, it is not for you.
Finally - the price of the battery today is below that of a full tank (at least to me). Consider worth some of the proposed methods.
Here are the details:
The below material is from a book written years ago and the advice given are in accordance with the car park on the advice vreme.Chast inappropriate or inapplicable to modern cars, yet most of the tips are very useful and will save you any problemi.Koi The Councils will use leave to you to decide.
How is built battery.
In cars mounted lead batteries with a special starter frame. Each battery is composed of battery cells housed in a common housing and connected in series by bridges. The cells have a nominal voltage of 2 volts.
Left: 1 - negative plates coated with active mass; 2 - separators (wood - and plastic with holes in them, b); 3-kit positive plates; 4-pole terminal; 5-bonding
RIGHT: Rechargeable battery (3 cells, i. E. 6-volt) 1 - insulating mass (resin); 2 - airtight lid of box; 3 - negative ("minus") pole of the battery; 4 - Cap (with vent plug in the middle of a cell); 5 - the first cell; 6 - bridge linking cells in series; 7 - the second cell; 8 - third cell;. 9 - cable lug: 10 - positive ("plus") pole of the battery: 11 -potopeni in electrolyte plates; 12 bottom ribs (prisms); 13 common external battery box.
Most cars are dvanadesetvoltova electrical system, which means that their battery is 6 cells. The batteries of electric cars shestvoltova system with 3 battery cells.
Each cell has positive and negative plates of special active mass. The size of the plates and the composition of their active mass depends largely on the capacity of the battery, i. E. How much current can take in charge and to what extent it will give consumers in the car. Positive and negative plates are separated by separators. Furthermore, to prevent short circuit, the plates do not abut on the bottom and on issued by the ribs. Even if part of the active mass is accumulated and shake off the bottom plates will be connected "shorted".
From the midline of the upper housing part can be seen:
1 - battery box; 2 - insulating mass (resin); 3 - cap (plug); 4 - hole to fill the battery with electrolyte and refill with distilled water; 5 - conical tube into the hole; 6 - pole of the battery; 7 -Safety grid over the plates.
Over plates placed protective plastic grille. Top box is covered with a lid. Pass through the terminals of the positive and negative plates. In the middle is an opening through which monitors the level of electrolyte in the cell and, if necessary, make water or electrolyte (as the reason for the drop in level). The opening is closed with the cap in the center of which there is a small vent.
Entire top surface of the battery bay with a special acid-resin or cover with plastic cover general. Above leaving only the openings of the cells and final pole terminals of the battery, denoted by (+) and (-). In some batteries are found and bridges.
Before selling workshops and conduct training workshops rechargeable Batteries as receive them from the factory dry. The cells were filled with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid accumulator. For our climate zone, or the density of the solution m. Called. Density of the electrolyte of the battery charged, measured at a temperature of + 25 ° C should be 1.28 g / cm3. Loading new batteries is mandatory to follow the instructions of the producer.
As mentioned above, in the vehicle is not used one battery cell and the number of connected in series and housed in a single case cells which form a "battery". Usually, in practice it is simply called car battery. Therefore, as the term "battery" is meant "battery".
Normal and accelerated aging of the battery.
Each battery has a nominal capacity in ampere hours measured (Ah), which indicates how much power can be taken away from the battery until it is discharged to a certain limit. For example, if straight and well-stocked 55-ampere-hour battery is discharged across consumer, drawing constant current equal to 1/20 of the battery capacity, i. E. About 3 amps, the battery will give 55 Ah power corresponding capacity him before its voltage to drop below the minimum dilution (1.7 volts per cell or total 10.2 volts measured at the poles of the battery dvanadesetvoltova).
Mentioned was that car batteries are starter type. This means that when running the engine they can draw large current without damage. Factory guarantee them 2-2.5 on life in normal use. It is considered that for this time the active mass of the plates is gradually damaged and part of it falls to the bottom of the battery. With proper use and regular maintenance of the battery in a charged state her life can be significantly extended.
Batteries get old or damaged quickly especially in unacceptably high dilution or self-discharge, as well as filling tap water or contamination of the electrolyte with external impurities. Improper cold start at low temperatures accelerate the destruction of the active mass of the plates. Harmful to the battery is recharging, as well as the decrease of the electrolyte below the minimum.
As can be seen, the causes that can lead to partial or total deterioration of the battery, not less. So let's move on to the answers to the first question, "Why, what and how to do it?", To provide a battery life greater than that provided by the factory.
Clean the battery.
For many reasons the battery is diluted even when there is not included any consumer of electricity. This process, called self-discharge is very slow if the battery is in a cold place. For example, in the summer self-discharge up to 1% per day. This means that during storage of the battery in a warm, non-charged, but two months later, he would be diluted by 60%. Such dilution is dangerous to the battery and should not be allowed!
There are a number of causes that lead to abnormal self-discharge of the battery. The main one is the pollution. Layer that spray electrolyte powder and other mechanical impurities formed on the surface of the battery box is conductive and accelerate self-discharge of the battery.
Washing with water and wipe the battery with a clean cloth or thread remove mechanical impurities and dust, but not entirely electrolyte. A call to help chemistry!
Fall battery electrolyte is neutralized with a cloth soaked in a 10% solution of ammonia, soda ash or soda to drink. Then the battery should be wiped with a damp cloth strong and dried with a dry cloth or thread.
Caps are removed and washed together with other external parts because otherwise it can fall or mechanical impurities of tap water in the battery. Finally, you should check that the ventilation holes on the caps are not blocked.
Keep the electrolyte level.
Electrolyte level should always be 10-15 mm above the plates. Atmospheric oxygen more easily pierce tynkiya electrolyte layer and chemically reacts with the active mass of the plates. If you drop the electrolyte so that the top of the plates appear above the surface, the battery will soon be damaged beyond repair.
All this requires the electrolyte level can be checked at least once every two weeks. Caution should be in the summer when the water evaporates more intense.
Batteries have a transparent box at the top two lines with labels "Min" (minimum) and "Max" (maximum). Electrolyte level should be kept as close to the top line and in no case be allowed to fall below the minimum.
In the batteries with an opaque box electrolyte level was measured with a glass or clear plastic tube having an inner diameter of 3-5 mm. It is immersed in the electrolyte, while against the guard of the plates. The opening of the tube being stacked with finger and subtract it vertically. To not be judged "by eye" is it normal level, well in advance to make two notches of the tube (with the sharp edge of the file - 10 and 15 mm from the bottom).
Upon evaporation of the water level of the electrolyte falls and its density increases. Electrolyte with high density is also dangerous for the "health" of the battery. Therefore, the electrolyte level should be refundable up distilled water. New electrolyte made up only when a part of the original has been poured for some reason the battery!
Dolyatata cells in distilled water was mixed very slowly with the electrolyte. At low temperature dolyatata water can freeze and form ice crystals destroy the plates of the battery. To prevent this, in the winter the water should be topped up with the engine running or just with the electrolyte. It is not distributed throughout the cell. Above all, the water penetrates into the pores of the active mass gabchatata and "sticks" on the plates. Imagine now that you have a brand new battery, which in freezing temperatures are lower distilled water.
It will quickly freeze in the pores of the active mass and around the plates, where increased volume (turned into ice crystals and pieces!) Began their destruction. The new battery becomes a box for disposal!
I dropped the level of the electrolyte in cold weather, take off the battery (if your car is not in the garage), top up with distilled water at home. Only after 4-5 hours can outsource it out, i. E. That time the water is already mixed with the electrolyte and the danger of frost is gone. Recommended at this time to turn the battery to charge.
If you go on the road in winter, this presents no problem. Replenish with distilled water immediately before starting the engine. The generator will start charging the battery and the risk of damage to the active mass of the plates will be as immediately began intensive mixing of water with electrolyte.
Do not pour drinking water in the battery.
Some claim that the battery nothing will happen if you top up with tap water.
This statement is not true! If distilled water instead of tap water refill or "clean" rain water that is flowing from the tin roof or passed through metal gutters will cause severe, reaching 5% of the day, self-discharge of the battery. Even when brand new, only a week or two the battery will start cheating on you, and then to self-destruct!
Some «capacity» recommend the freeze melted ice from the refrigerator, and others - from the mountain snow, instead of seeking bottled distilled water. They do not take into account however, that any touch metal "filled", incl. and ice, particularly harmful metal ions battery. A mountain snow? Do you know in what and what polluted atmosphere has passed it before you cover with deceptive lightness mountain?
Distilled water is very cheap and is sold in all stations. To saving pennies it is just unreasonable!
Keep the battery from knocks and bumps.
If the battery is subjected to severe shocks, even though its case is completely healthy, active mass of the plates it can be torn apart. The lightest damage is decrease its capacity, and the largest - the pieces to make the plates "shorted". In the latter case the very next morning you can not turn the engine.
To protect the chassis from the harmful effects of electrolytes and to reduce turbulence when driving on a bad road, the battery is placed on acid-rubber pad. But the pad will not save the battery if it is not properly secured. When driving on rough roads bad mounting battery undergoes already mentioned hazards.
Cracks in the battery box.
When the battery is installed in the vehicle, some of the walls are not visible. You notice unusual sharp drop in the electrolyte in individual cells (cell), immediately remove the battery and look. Perhaps its case was cracked and the electrolyte flows from the crack. In this case, the rubber pad has spilled liquid. Is water or electrolyte will know you just put it a little aqueous soda ash, ammonia or soda to drink (soda). If it is spilled electrolyte immediately start visible chemical reaction. To find out if the case is cracked, top up with distilled water, these cells have a highly reduced level. Wash and dry the battery and place it on cardboard (paper). If the cardboard gets wet and it appear brown spots, the box is cracked. Otherwise, the most likely cause for the discharge of the electrolyte of the battery is recharging, i. E. Of adjustment is the voltage regulator voltage.